Latin name: Capsicum annuum (Linn.), C. frutescens (C.B.Clarke), C. purpureum (Roxb.), C. minimum (Roxb.)
Sanskrit/Indian name: Katuvira, Mirchi
The species is a source of popular sweet peppers and hot chilis with numerous varieties cultivated all around the world.
Common naming in English falls generally in line with the flavor and size of the variant. Larger, sweeter variants are called red or green peppers, "bell peppers" or "capsicum" and the smaller, hotter varieties "chillis", "chilies" or "chili peppers".
Capsinoid chemicals provide the distinctive tastes in Capsicum anunuum variants. In particular Capsaicin creates a burning sensation ("hotness"), which in extreme cases can last for several hours after ingestion. A measurement called the Scoville scale has been created to describe the hotness of peppers and other foods.